mold under a microscope

Unseen Threats: Understanding Molds and Mycotoxins and Their Impact on Health

Imagine returning home after a long day at work, looking forward to unwinding in the comfort of your own space. You open the door, and a musty, unpleasant odor greets you. As you investigate, you find patches of a greenish-black substance lurking in the corners, creeping along the walls. Your home, your sanctuary, has been invaded, but the culprits are unseen, hidden in plain sight. This chilling scenario of molds and mycotoxins is not just a work of fiction; it's a reality for many people around the world, particularly here in mostly rainy western Washington.

Why Are Molds Even Important?

Molds, these seemingly innocuous organisms, can transform your home into a silent battleground, and their sinister accomplice, mycotoxins, can have a profound impact on your health. While we often associate health risks with visible dangers, like accidents or contagious diseases, there are insidious, lesser-known threats that go unnoticed, including molds, mycotoxins, chemicals, heavy metals, and EMFs.This article specifically focuses on molds and mycotoxins, which can infiltrate our living spaces, affecting our well-being in ways we might not even realize.

Understanding Molds

What are molds?

Molds, a type of fungi, are a natural part of our environment. They exist everywhere, both indoors and outdoors. These microorganisms reproduce by releasing tiny spores into the air, which can settle on surfaces and begin to grow. Molds come in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, and colors, with some of the most common indoor molds being Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and the notorious Stachybotrys chartarum, often referred to as "black mold."

Molds play a crucial role in breaking down organic matter and recycling nutrients in nature. However, when they find their way into indoor environments, they can become problematic, leading to potentially devastating health issues.

Common Types of Indoor Molds


This mold is typically found on plants, soil, and decaying organic matter. It can often grow on damp building materials, such as wood and textiles, and is a common allergenic mold.


Recognized for its green or blue-green appearance, Penicillium is often found on materials like wallpaper, insulation, and carpet. Exposure to Penicillium can trigger allergies and respiratory problems.


Aspergillus molds are widespread and come in many species. Some are beneficial, like Aspergillus oryzae, used in fermenting soy sauce, while others can be harmful to human health. These molds can produce mycotoxins that can have adverse effects.

Stachybotrys chartarum (Black Mold)

This mold is infamous due to its dark green or black appearance and is frequently associated with health problems. It usually thrives in areas with prolonged moisture exposure, including water-damaged buildings.

Mold Growth Conditions

Mold growth is highly dependent on specific conditions, including:

  • Moisture: Molds require moisture to thrive. Humidity levels above 60% provide an ideal environment for mold growth. Leaky pipes, water infiltration, or high humidity can create conditions conducive to mold development.
  • Food source: Molds feed on organic materials like wood, drywall, paper, and dust. 
  • Temperature: Molds typically thrive in temperatures between 77°F (25°C) and 86°F (30°C). However, they can grow at lower temperatures as well.
  • Poor Ventilation: Inadequate airflow and ventilation in indoor spaces can lead to moisture buildup and mold growth.

How Molds Affect Health

Exposure to molds can have various health effects, especially for individuals who are sensitive or allergic to them. Some common health problems associated with mold exposure include:

  • Allergic Reactions: Mold spores can trigger allergic reactions in some people, leading to symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, itchy or watery eyes, skin rashes, and asthma.
  • Respiratory Issues: Prolonged exposure to molds, especially in high concentrations or by individuals with respiratory conditions, can lead to chronic respiratory problems and infections.
  • Irritation: Molds can release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can cause eye, nose, and throat irritation.

Mycotoxins: The Silent Threat

What are Mycotoxins (as Distinct from Molds)?

While molds themselves can pose health risks, there's a more sinister component hidden within many of them – mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by certain molds. These toxic compounds are byproducts of mold growth and serve as the mold's defense mechanism against other microorganisms. Unfortunately, when they find their way into our environments, they can have serious consequences for human health.

Mycotoxins are incredibly stable and can resist high temperatures, ensuring their resilience in various environments, including the food chain. When ingested, inhaled, or even absorbed through the skin, mycotoxins can have a profound impact on the human body.

Types of Mycotoxins

There are numerous types of mycotoxins, each with its own characteristics and associated health risks. Some of the most commonly encountered mycotoxins include:


Produced primarily by Aspergillus species, especially Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, aflatoxins are notorious for their carcinogenic properties. Contaminated grains, seeds, and nuts are common sources of aflatoxins, and consumption of these contaminated foods can lead to various health issues, including liver cancer, hepatitis, cirrhosis, and more. Exposure to aflatoxins typically occurs through:

  • Consuming contaminated plant products: Aflatoxins can taint crops like peanuts, corn, and cereals, leading to health risks.
  • Eating meat or dairy from animals that have ingested contaminated feed: Aflatoxins can find their way into the food chain via contaminated feed that is then consumed by the animals, posing risks to humans who consume products derived from these animals.
  • Inhaling dust while working with contaminated products: Handling or processing contaminated materials can lead to inhalation of aflatoxin-contaminated dust.

Types of Aflatoxins:

  • Aflatoxin B1: This is the most toxic among the four aflatoxins that pose a cancer risk to both humans and animals. It is classified by the World Health Organization as a class 1 carcinogen. Aflatoxin B1 primarily targets the liver, kidneys and lungs.
  • Aflatoxin B2: Produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, aflatoxin B2 is another toxin and carcinogen that contaminates food products. It mainly impacts the liver and kidneys.
  • Aflatoxin G1: Born from soil-borne fungi, aflatoxin G1 contaminates a wide range of food products, including corn, grains, peanuts, cottonseed meal, oilseeds, and vegetable oils. Aflatoxin G1 contamination is most common in humid environments.
  • Aflatoxin G2: Aflatoxin G2 can cause liver problems, including cancer, chronic hepatitis, and jaundice, and also plays a role in conditions such as Reye's syndrome.


Trichothecenes represent a group of mycotoxins produced by at least five types of fungi, totaling around 170 different toxins. These toxins can contaminate a variety of sources, including grains, vegetables, and fruits, as well as soil and decaying organic matter. Some of these mycotoxins are infamously produced by Stachybotrys chartarum (“black mold”).

Types of Trichothecenes:

  • Satratoxin G: Among all the trichothecenes, Satratoxin G is considered the most dangerous to both people and animals. Stachybotrys chartarum produces Satratoxin G and H in greater quantities than other toxins.
  • Satratoxin H: This trichothecene mycotoxin is often found on certain agricultural materials and in damp or water-damaged environments.
  • Isosatratoxin F: Another trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Stachybotrys chartarum, Isosatratoxin F contributes to "sick building syndrome." 
  • Roridin A: Roridin A is produced by molds and is associated with a range of acute and chronic respiratory tract health problems. Symptoms of Roridin A exposure can include nasal inflammation, excess mucus secretion; this mycotoxin can damage the olfactory system.
  • Roridin E: Similar to many other mycotoxins, Roridin E can cause respiratory and olfactory issues, and may also disrupt the synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein, which can impact every cell in the body. Roridin E thrives in moist indoor environments, but it can also be produced by a soil fungus that contaminates food, affecting humans through the food chain.
  • Roridin H: Roridin H is produced particularly by Stachybotrys chartarum. This mold thrives on various building materials subject to damp conditions, including wood fiber, ceiling tiles, boards, water-damaged gypsum board, and air conditioning ducts.
  • Roridin L-2: This mycotoxin is also produced by various molds, including Stachybotrys chartarum. Rorodin L-2 is highly toxic along with being light and easily airborne, making it readily inhalable by occupants of an infected building.
  • Verrucarin J: Also produced by Stachybotrys chartarum, Verrucarin molecules are small enough to be airborne and easily inhaled. Verrucarin J along with other trichothecene mycotoxins have been found to also be absorbable via the mouth and skin.
  • Verrucarin A: One of the most toxic trichothecenes, Verrucarin A is also produced by fungi and mold. Verrucarin A is found not only in damp environments but also in naturally-occuring molds on various crops intended for human and animal consumption.

Other Mycotoxins

  • Gliotoxin: The most common cause of mold-related diseases in humans is Aspergillus fumigatus. A. fumigatus produces gliotoxin, which is known to suppress the immune system. Invasive Aspergillosis (IA) is a leading cause of death in immunocompromised people.
  • Ochratoxin A (OTA): OTA is a mycotoxin produced by different Aspergillus and Penicillium species and is one of the most prevalent food-contaminating mycotoxins. It has been found in many different food products including cereals, coffee, and wine, and is also a common contaminant in water-damaged houses and heating ducts. OTA is associated with kidney damage and is a potential carcinogen.

Mycotoxin Exposure

Mycotoxins can enter the human body through various means, each with its own set of risks and potential health consequences:

  • Ingestion: One of the most common routes of mycotoxin exposure is through the consumption of mycotoxin-contaminated food and beverages. This can occur when mycotoxin-producing molds have tainted crops, such as grains, nuts, and even processed food products. Food safety measures are of paramount importance in preventing mycotoxin consumption. 
  • Inhalation: Mold spores, which may carry mycotoxins, can become airborne and pose a respiratory hazard when they are disturbed, such as during activities like mold removal or cleaning. Inhalation of mycotoxins is a serious concern, especially in indoor environments. It is crucial to take precautionary measures when handling mold-infested materials to minimize the risk of inhaling mycotoxins.
  • Dermal absorption: In certain situations, mycotoxins may be absorbed through the skin, particularly among individuals who are in direct contact with moldy materials. Skin contact with mycotoxins can be minimized by using appropriate protective gear and clothing when handling mold-infested materials.

Health Effects of Mycotoxin Exposure

Exposure to mycotoxins can result in a broad spectrum of health effects, and the severity of these effects depends on various factors, including the specific mycotoxin involved, the level of exposure, and individual sensitivity. These effects can range from mild to severe and may include:

  • Chronic health issues: Long-term exposure to low levels of mycotoxins can lead to chronic health problems. These may encompass a wide range of issues, including: 

  • Birth defects
  • Reproductive difficulties
  • Kidney toxicity & damage
  • Depression
  • Immune system suppression
  • Autoimmune challenges
  • Memory impairment
  • Neurological deficits
  • Chronic fatigue
  • Liver and other cancers
  • Aplastic anemia

  • Allergic reactions: Some mycotoxins can induce allergic reactions in individuals who come into contact with them. These reactions can resemble the symptoms associated with mold allergies and may include sneezing, coughing, nasal congestion, skin rashes, and other allergic responses. Allergic reactions may occur through various exposure routes, such as inhalation or skin contact.
  • Acute poisoning: In instances of high mycotoxin exposure, individuals can experience acute poisoning. Symptoms of acute poisoning may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and even more severe gastrointestinal distress. The severity of these symptoms may depend on the mycotoxin type and the amount ingested.

It is essential to recognize that the health effects of mycotoxin exposure can vary significantly based on the specific circumstances. Early detection of mycotoxin contamination and prompt action to mitigate exposure are crucial steps in minimizing the potential health risks associated with mycotoxins. Individuals who are particularly sensitive to mycotoxins should exercise extra caution to reduce the risk of adverse health effects.

Genetic Predisposition to Molds and Mycotoxins Sensitivity

Genetics and Mold-Related Health Issues

Genetics can significantly impact how a person's body responds to exposure to molds and mycotoxins. It is estimated that 25% of Americans have a genetic predisposition to be affected by mold!! Several genes have been identified as potential contributors to mold sensitivity and related-health problems. For instance, variations in genes related to the immune system, such as those involved in immune response and inflammation regulation, can influence an individual's susceptibility to mold-related allergies and respiratory issues. Additionally, certain genetic factors may affect how efficiently the body detoxifies mycotoxins, potentially influencing the severity of mycotoxin-related health effects.

Research into the genetic factors that influence mold and mycotoxin sensitivity is ongoing, and the exact genes responsible for these traits can vary among individuals. However, some genetic factors and gene variations have been identified as potential contributors to mold and mycotoxin sensitivity, as well as the ability to detoxify mycotoxins. Here are a few examples:

  • HLA genes: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes play a significant role in the immune system. Certain variations in HLA genes have been associated with increased susceptibility to mold-related health issues, such as hypersensitivity pneumonitis and other allergic reactions. Those who carry the HLA-DR gene specifically can have difficulty recovering from mold and other toxin exposures. 
  • Cytokine genes: Genes that code for cytokines, which are signaling molecules involved in immune response and inflammation, can influence an individual's susceptibility to mold-related respiratory issues. Variations in cytokine genes, such as interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10), may affect one’s response to mold exposure.
  • Detoxification genes: The ability to efficiently detoxify mycotoxins can vary based on genetic factors. Genes involved in the body's detoxification pathways, such as those responsible for the cytochrome P450 enzymes, can impact how effectively mycotoxins are processed and eliminated from the body.
  • Mannose-Binding Lectin (MBL) gene: Variations in the MBL gene can affect an individual's susceptibility to fungal infections. MBL is a key component of the innate immune system, and genetic variations can influence the body's ability to recognize and respond to fungal invaders, potentially affecting mold sensitivity.

It's important to note that while these genes have been implicated in mold and mycotoxin sensitivity, individual responses can be influenced by a complex interplay of genetic, environmental, and immunological factors. Furthermore, ongoing research in the field of genetics and mycotoxin sensitivity may reveal additional genetic factors that contribute to individual variability in response to mold and mycotoxin exposure.

For a more comprehensive understanding of how these genetic factors affect one’s sensitivity to mold and mycotoxins, consult with a healthcare provider or genetic counselor with expertise in this area. They can provide personalized insights based on your genetic profile and medical history.

Additional blood tests that can provide information on possible mold exposure, load, and/or sensitivity include: C4A, TGF-Beta 1, MMP9, MSH, VIP, Anti-Gliadin Antibodies, and VEGF.

Detecting Mold and Mycotoxins

Signs of Mold Infestation

Mold infestations can often go unnoticed until they become a significant issue. Recognizing the signs of mold in your home is essential for early detection and mitigation. Common indicators of a mold problem include:

  • Visible mold growth: The most obvious sign is the presence of visible mold, which can appear as discolored patches on walls, ceilings, or other surfaces.
  • Musty odor: A musty, unpleasant odor can be an indication of hidden mold growth.
  • Water damage: Past or ongoing water damage, such as leaks, flooding, or high humidity, creates an environment conducive to mold growth.
  • Health symptoms: Unexplained health issues like allergies, respiratory problems, or skin irritation in household members can sometimes be linked to mold exposure.

Testing for Molds and Mycotoxins

Identifying mold and mycotoxin contamination in your home can be crucial for assessing the risk and implementing appropriate remediation measures. Several testing methods are available, including:

  • Visual inspection: A thorough visual inspection of your home can reveal visible mold growth, which is a strong indicator of a problem.
  • Air sampling: Collecting air samples can help detect the presence of mold spores in the indoor environment, although it may not identify specific mycotoxins.
  • Surface sampling: This method involves swabbing or tape-lifting from surfaces to detect the presence of molds and mycotoxins.
  • Mycotoxin testing: Specialized laboratory testing can identify the presence of mycotoxins in various materials, including building materials and food.

When to Seek Professional Help

While some minor mold issues can be handled through DIY methods, certain situations call for professional assistance from mold remediation specialists. You should consider seeking their expertise when:

  • The mold infestation is extensive, covering a large area.
  • The mold is found in HVAC systems, making it difficult to access and remediate.
  • Building occupants experience severe health problems that may be related to mold exposure.
  • You are uncertain about the type of mold or mycotoxins present and need a comprehensive assessment.

Preventing Molds and Mycotoxins Exposure

Strategies for Preventing Mold Growth

To maintain a mold-free environment, it's essential to:

  • Control indoor humidity and moisture levels - use air purifiers and dehumidifiers when needed.
  • Maintain a clean and well-ventilated living space.
  • Address water leaks and damp areas promptly.
  • Regularly clean and inspect your home for mold growth.

To reduce the risk of mycotoxin exposure in your food:

  • Properly store grains, nuts and seeds in cool, dry conditions.
  • Regularly inspect and discard moldy or damaged food (unless it’s blue cheese ?).
  • Ensure good ventilation in food storage areas.

Managing Mold & Mycotoxin-Related Health Issues

Medical Diagnosis Options

When mold and mycotoxin exposure leads to health issues, seeking a medical diagnosis is crucial. Diagnostic options may include:

  • Clinical evaluation: A healthcare provider can assess symptoms, medical history, and potential exposure sources.
  • Blood tests: Blood testing can include detection of mycotoxin-related antibodies, indicating exposure and potential sensitivity.
  • Urine testing: Ultra-sensitive, advanced urine testing can detect mycotoxin exposure at an early stage, and is by far our preferred testing option with patients. Furthermore, urine testing is excellent for monitoring treatment progress with mold-related health issues, allowing adjustments as needed.
  • Imaging: In some cases, medical imaging like chest X-rays or CT scans may reveal respiratory issues impacted by mold and mycotoxin exposure.

Personalized Medicine: Treatment for Mold & Mycotoxin Illnesses

Individual immune responses to mold toxicity and recovery thereof can be influenced by genetic, molecular, and lifestyle factors, including genetic predisposition, organ vitality (in particular the liver, kidneys, skin, lungs, and intestines), and nutritional status. At Reboot Center, we personalize restorative therapeutic protocols that are designed for optimizing recovery. Our therapeutic protocols for treating mold and mycotoxin-related health problems may include:

  1. Supplements: Some of our go-tos include vitamin C, activated charcoal, chlorella, glutathione, humic acid, fulvic acid, quercetin, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, milk thistle and dandelion.
  2. Medications: Cholestyramine can be a terrific adjunct medicine depending on the individual. 
  3. Homeopathics: Personalized homeopathic preparations may be recommended, based on the individual symptom picture and type of mycotoxin.
  4. Nutritional Optimization
  5. Infrared Sauna Therapy 
  6. PEMF Therapy
  7. Respiratory Support: In severe cases, respiratory issues may require oxygen therapy or bronchodilators.

Please consult with your integrative or functional medicine provider before embarking on any treatment regimen.


Molds and mycotoxins are a real threat, as they are resilient little buggers that can hide out in beautifully packaged foods and bulk grain, seed, and nut products, in our walls and on window sills, and find their way into our indoor air. So….

  1. First and foremost, limit/avoid exposure. The old adage still holds true: “An ounce of prevention is worth a thousand pounds of cure.” 
  2. Test for genetic mold/mycotoxin susceptibility with your doc, particularly if you have lingering chronic illness without a known trigger and/or if you believe you might have past or current exposure.
  3. Treat mycotoxin-related illness strategically, in conjunction with a provider versed in mycotoxin illnesses.

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